The economic strategy of the movement was to revive domestic products and production processes by boycotting use of British products with the objective of protesting against British rule and establishing self-rule in India. The movement has recurred several times in India over centuries. The strongest of them perhaps was the second Swadeshi movement, regarded as most successful of the pre-Gandhian movement, that started in the Bengal province, considered the nerve centre of Indian nationalism, in after the then Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon announced partition of Bengal. Formal proclamation of the movement was made on August 7, at the Calcutta Town hall where the famous Boycott resolution was also passed.
Essay, Article, Paragraph, Speech 4. It was a massive movement which involved the participation from all the section of society from ranging from students, workers to the woman and other parts of the community. It was the first time that such a massive outcry took place in India that not only united the country but also helped the people to realize that it was a time when Britishers should leave India.
Although the Swadeshi movement was massive, due to certain drawback, this movement ultimately lost its momentum. Nevertheless, it prepared the stage for future movements. The reasons given by the government were as follows: Bengal being the most populated state about 78 millionwhich was about one-fourth the population of the British India was difficult to administrate.
The national leader realized the real motive of the government which was to break the state into two parts on the lines of religion and language, thereby curbing the national movements.
Reason behind the division The main principle was to divide and rule.
In this case, the division of the state was as follows Along the lines of religion in which the eastern state would be dominated by the Muslim community, while the western state would be dominated by the Eastern community.
According to the language basis, they cunningly devised the division so that Bengalis become a minority in their state, especially Hindu Bengalis. The western side was dominated by Hindi and Oriya people, whereas the eastern state was dominated by Muslim Bengalis. This was a favorable division as it would divide the United Bengal and would breed embrittlement among the people.
Initial reaction of people At the time of the announcement, the Congress was ruled by the moderates who sought to memorandums, articles and other nonaggressive methods to should create resentment to the government.
A big blow came to the nation when Government on July announced the formal division of the Bengal. All the people went out to the streets organizing riots and meetings were organized to boycott foreign products. On August 7,with the passage of Boycott Resolution in a large meeting held in the Calcutta Townhall, the formal proclamation of Swadeshi Movement was made.
When the division was formally announced on October 16,the day was observed as mourning day where people sang Bande Mataram and rachis were worn by Hindu-Muslims as a sign of brotherhood.
The split in Congress As the news of Bengal division spread, many leaders started to gather masses for the fight against the injustice. But, the method of the execution of plan created a difference between Moderates and Radicals.
While moderates preferred passive aggression, radicals preferred active aggression and protest. The difference was so intense that on Surat meeting, the extremist left the Congress thereby decreasing the momentum and making the movement leaderless.
Eventual failure of movement The movement brought about a massive riot and protested against the oppression of Government, but due to following reasons the movement eventually stopped: Essay, Article, Paragraph, Speech Eventually, the partition was called off onand the capital was shifted from Kolkata to Delhi.Freedom Struggle,The First War of Independence,Partition of Bengal,Swadeshi Movement,Jalianwalabagh massacre,Non-cooperation movement,Poorna Swaraj declaration,Meerut.
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These questions comes in exams too. Article on Sustainable Development through Swadeshi Steel. Submitted by Devesh Goyal.
For details, refer the attachment. The Non-Cooperation Movement was a significant phase of the Indian independence movement from British rule.
It was led by Mahatma Gandhi after the Jallianwala Bagh ph-vs.com aimed to resist British rule in India through non-violent means, or "Ahimsa".Protesters would refuse to buy British goods, adopt the use of local handicrafts and picket liquor shops.
Swadeshi definition, a political movement in British India that encouraged domestic production and the boycott of foreign, especially British, goods as a step toward home rule. See more. THEMES IN INDIAN HISTORY – PART III Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Civil Disobedience and Beyond THEME THIRTEEN Fig.
People gather on the banks of the Sabarmati River to hear Mahatma Gandhi speak before starting.