Substitutes and compliments

If a lot of hamburgers are sold, a lot of french fries will be sold as well. Thus, the demand for hamburgers has a significant impact on the demand for french fries. This is a simple example of complementary demand in economics. As demand increases, so does price.

Substitutes and compliments

Effect of Demand Curve on Substitute Goods and Complementary Goods | Micro Economics

Examples[ edit ] Supply and demand of hotdogs when the price of buns decreases An example of this would be the demand for cars and petrol. The supply and demand of cars is represented by the figure at the right with the initial demand D1. Suppose that the initial price of cars is represented by P1 with a quantity demanded of Q1.

If the price of petrol were to decrease by some amount, this would result in a higher quantity of cars demanded. This higher quantity demanded would cause the demand curve to shift rightward to a new position D2. Assuming a constant supply curve S of cars, the new increased quantity demanded will be at D2 with a new increased price P2.

Automobile and fuel, mobile phone and cellular service provider, Printer and Cartridge among others. Indifference curve for perfect complements A perfect complement is a good that has to be consumed with another good. The indifference curve of a perfect complement will exhibit a right angle, as illustrated by the figure at the right.

Few goods in the real world will behave as perfect complements. The degree of complementarity, however, does not have to be mutual; it can be measured by cross price elasticity of demand.

Substitutes and compliments

In the case of video games, a specific video game the complement good has to be consumed with a video game console the base good. It does not work the other way: Example[ edit ] A classic example of mutually perfect complements is the case of pencils and erasers.

Imagine an accountant who will need to prepare financial statements, but in doing so must use pencils to make all calculations and erasers to correct errors. The accountant knows that for every three pencils, one eraser will be needed. Any more pencils will serve no purpose, because they will not be able to erase the calculations.

Any more erasers will not be useful either, because there will not be enough pencils for them to make a large enough mess with in order to require more erasers. In this case the utility would be given by an increasing function of: It allows vendor lock-in as it increases the switching cost.


A few types of pricing strategy exist for a complementary good and its base good: Pricing the base good at a relatively low price to the complementary good - this approach allows easy entry by consumers e. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Archived from the original on Complements and substitutes illustrate the difference between changes in quantity demanded vs changes in demand.

Substitutes and compliments

Introduction. Two goods (A and B) are complementary if using more of good A requires the use of more good B. For example, ink jet printer and ink cartridge are complements.

Complementary good - Wikipedia

The most obvious cost a person bears in buying a product is the price of the product. Price reflects cost because people have a limited amount of funds that they can spend, and if they spend their money on one thing, they cannot spend it on another.

Economics Explained: Complements, Substitutes, and Elasticity of Demand When examining how price and demand changes will affect markets, it is important to consider how various goods are related.

We can separate goods into 2 basic types: substitutes and complements. Indifference Curve for Substitutes Notice the x-axis and y-axis - both are for a given good.

If you demand one unit of good Y, then you'd be happy to substitute that for roughly two units of good X. Economic Models: Substitutes and Complements The definitions for substitute products and complementary products come from the world of micro-economics. Substitutes and complements are used to model the interdependent nature of the changes of prices on the supply and demand of .

Substitutes are goods that, well, substitute for one another. When a given good's price goes up, the quantity of it demanded (usually) drops, and often, demand for a substitute good increases.

If beef prices rise for some reason, consumers will likely reduce their .

Difference Between Complementary and Substitute in Economics | Bizfluent