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This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message During the late medieval periodglass factories were set up where there was a ready supply of silicathe essential material for glass manufacture.
Silica requires a very high temperature to melt, something not all glass factories were able to achieve. Such materials as potashsodaand lead can be added to lower the melting temperature. Other substances, such as limeare added to rebuild the weakened network and make the glass more stable.
Glass is coloured by adding metallic oxide powders or finely divided metals while it is in a molten state. Copper oxides produce green or bluish green, cobalt makes deep blue, and gold produces wine red and violet glass.
Much modern red glass is produced using copper, which is less expensive than gold and gives a brighter, more vermilion shade of red. Glass coloured while in the clay pot in the furnace is known as pot metal glass, as opposed to flashed glass.
Cylinder glass or Muff[ edit ] Using a blow-pipe, a "gather" glob of molten glass is taken from the pot heating in the furnace. The gather is formed to the correct shape and a bubble of air blown into it.
Using metal tools, molds of wood that have been soaking in water, and gravity, the gather is manipulated to form a long, cylindrical shape. As it cools, it is reheated so that the manipulation can continue.
During the process, the bottom of the cylinder is removed.
Once brought to the desired size it is left to cool. One side of the cylinder is opened. It is put into another oven to quickly heat and flatten it, and then placed in an annealer to cool at a controlled rate, making the material more stable.
Stained glass windows were normally in churches and chapeles as well as many more well respected buildings. Crown glass[ edit ] This hand-blown glass is created by blowing a bubble of air into a gather of molten glass and then spinning it, either by hand or on a table that revolves rapidly like a potter's wheel.
The centrifugal force causes the molten bubble to open up and flatten. It can then be cut into small sheets. Glass formed this way can be either coloured and used for stained-glass windows, or uncoloured as seen in small paned windows in 16th- and 17th-century houses.
Concentric, curving waves are characteristic of the process.
The center of each piece of glass, known as the "bull's-eye", is subject to less acceleration during spinning, so it remains thicker than the rest of the sheet. It also has the distinctive lump of glass left by the "pontil" rod, which holds the glass as it is spun out.
This lumpy, refractive quality means the bulls-eyes are less transparent, but they have still been used for windows, both domestic and ecclesiastical.
Crown glass is still made today, but not on a large scale. Rolled glass[ edit ] Rolled glass sometimes called "table glass" is produced by pouring molten glass onto a metal or graphite table and immediately rolling it into a sheet using a large metal cylinder, similar to rolling out a pie crust.
The rolling can be done by hand or by machine. The glass is then annealed.
Rolled glass was first commercially produced around the mids and is widely used today.Mini Halston Stained Glass Panel: 12 Inch Decorative Window Hanging Suncatcher - Small Round Tiffany Style Ornament - Blue Heart Decoration for the Wall or Windows with Green, Yellow and Red Accents.
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it. Throughout its thousand-year history, the term has been applied almost exclusively to the windows of churches and other significant religious buildings.
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Throughout its thousand-year history, the term has been applied almost exclusively to the windows of churches and other significant religious buildings.