An analysis of mitochondria and chloroplast in biology

Plastids Plastid is another important energy transducing cell organelle found only in plants. Shimper coined the name Plastids for those structures responsible for photosynthesis. In actuality, photosynthesis provides chemical energy directly or indirectly, for all other living organism, Chloroplasts are unique organells for they are capable of capturing, converting and conserving solar energy in the form of chemical energy. Plastids are found in almost all cells of the plant body either in the form of colorless plastids or colored plastids or proplastids.

An analysis of mitochondria and chloroplast in biology

Schimper would name these bodies as "chloroplastids" Chloroplastiden. They are considered to have originated from cyanobacteria through endosymbiosis —when a eukaryotic cell engulfed a photosynthesizing cyanobacterium that became a permanent resident in the cell.

Mitochondria are thought to have come from a similar event, where an aerobic prokaryote was engulfed.

Fluid Transport-Organic Solute Transport

Cyanobacterial ancestor Main article: Cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria are considered the ancestors of chloroplasts. They are sometimes called blue-green algae even though they are prokaryotes.

They are a diverse phylum of bacteria capable of carrying out photosynthesisand are gram-negativemeaning that they have two cell membranes. Cyanobacteria also contain a peptidoglycan cell wallwhich is thicker than in other gram-negative bacteria, and which is located between their two cell membranes.

Both the chloroplast and cyanobacterium depicted are idealized versions the chloroplast is that of a higher plant —a lot of diversity exists among chloroplasts and cyanobacteria.

Big Idea 1: Evolution

Primary endosymbiosis Primary endosymbiosis A eukaryote with mitochondria engulfed a cyanobacterium in an event of serial primary endosymbiosis, creating a lineage of cells with both organelles. The external cell is commonly referred to as the host while the internal cell is called the endosymbiont.

It is now generally held that organisms with primary chloroplasts share a single ancestor that took in a cyanobacterium — million years ago. All primary chloroplasts belong to one of four chloroplast lineages—the glaucophyte chloroplast lineage, the amoeboid Paulinella chromatophora lineage, the rhodophyte red algal chloroplast lineage, or the chloroplastidan green chloroplast lineage.

Cyanobacteria The alga Cyanophoraa glaucophyteis thought to be one of the first organisms to contain a chloroplast.

The starch that they synthesize collects outside the chloroplast. Bornetia secundifloraPeyssonnelia squamariaCyanidiumLaurenciaCallophyllis laciniata.

Red algal chloroplasts are characterized by phycobilin pigments which often give them their reddish color. ScenedesmusMicrasteriasHydrodictyonVolvoxStigeoclonium. Green algal chloroplasts are characterized by their pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b which give them their green color. The chloroplastidan chloroplasts, or green chloroplasts, are another large, highly diverse primary chloroplast lineage.

Their host organisms are commonly known as the green algae and land plants. Chloroplastidan chloroplasts have lost the peptidoglycan wall between their double membrane, leaving an intermembrane space. Green algae and plants keep their starch inside their chloroplasts, [14] [35] [38] and in plants and some algae, the chloroplast thylakoids are arranged in grana stacks.

Some green algal chloroplasts contain a structure called a pyrenoid[14] which is functionally similar to the glaucophyte carboxysome in that it is where RuBisCO and CO2 are concentrated in the chloroplast.

Helicosporidium is a genus of nonphotosynthetic parasitic green algae that is thought to contain a vestigial chloroplast. It is not clear whether that symbiont is closely related to the ancestral chloroplast of other eukaryotes.

Chromatophores cannot survive outside their host. These chloroplasts are known as secondary plastids. Diagram of a four membraned chloroplast containing a nucleomorph. The genes in the phagocytosed eukaryote's nucleus are often transferred to the secondary host's nucleus.

Euglenophytes Euglenophytes are a group of common flagellated protists that contain chloroplasts derived from a green alga. Photosynthetic product is stored in the form of paramylonwhich is contained in membrane-bound granules in the cytoplasm of the euglenophyte.

Chlorarachniophytes replaced their original red algal endosymbiont with a green alga. The ancestor of chlorarachniophytes is thought to have been a eukaryote with a red algal derived chloroplast.

It is then thought to have lost its first red algal chloroplast, and later engulfed a green alga, giving it its second, green algal derived chloroplast. The chloroplast is surrounded by two membranes and has no nucleomorph—all the nucleomorph genes have been transferred to the dinophyte nucleus.

Cryptophyte chloroplasts contain a nucleomorph that superficially resembles that of the chlorarachniophytes. They synthesize ordinary starchwhich is stored in granules found in the periplastid space —outside the original double membrane, in the place that corresponds to the red alga's cytoplasm.

An analysis of mitochondria and chloroplast in biology

Inside cryptophyte chloroplasts is a pyrenoid and thylakoids in stacks of two. Haptophytes Haptophytes are similar and closely related to cryptophytes or heterokontophytes. The heterokontophytesalso known as the stramenopiles, are a very large and diverse group of eukaryotes.

The photoautotrophic lineage, Ochrophytaincluding the diatoms and the brown algaegolden algae[36] and yellow-green algaealso contains red algal derived chloroplasts.

Like haptophytes, heterokontophytes store sugar in chrysolaminarin granules in the cytoplasm.Big Idea 2: Free Energy. - Life Requires Free Energy - Photosynthesis & Respiration - Environmental Matter Exchange.

Pearson, as an active contributor to the biology learning community, is pleased to provide free access to the Classic edition of The Biology Place to all educators and their students. Course Summary If you use the Campbell Biology Online textbook in class, this course is a great resource to supplement your studies.

Mitochondria and chloroplasts differ from other cellular compartments by their endosymbiotic origin, their semiautonomous genetic machineries and their much more complex biology.

This GRC brings together established scientists and young researchers to report on and discuss emerging aspects of .

An analysis of mitochondria and chloroplast in biology

Reidenbach et al. discover small-molecule and lipid ligands for the atypical kinase-like protein COQ8 that enhance its ATPase activity. They develop an analog-sensitive version of COQ8 that can be covalently inhibited, enabling acute inhibition of COQ8 ATPase activity in vitro and coenzyme Q biosynthesis in vivo.

Thanks to Shahzeb for contributing the notes! 1. Characteristics of living things Biology is the study of living organisms. For something to be alive it needs to perform all seven functions of living things: Movement, Respiration, Sensitivity, Growth, Reproduction, Excretion, Nutrition.


Laboratory of Dynamic Cell Biology